AFRICAN LIBERATION MOVEMENT- PART 3

The Dynamics of Global Africans De-colonising and Liberating Minds of People Everywhere!

NEGRITUDE 1930s – 40s – 50s – 60s.

The Black StudentAfrican French Publication1935.

The New World from the 1600s, through historical facts, was a division of four specific geo-political colonial blocks.

South America, dominated by Spain. North America, under the influence of France. Central America, home for all other Europeans. Slave plantations, on the Caribbean Islands.

Europe remained the headquarters for all operations, until the wars for independence in the colonies.

Africans functioned a significant role, in all four places. The truth of history can recall, and reveal what took place in the centuries that followed. From the early 20th century, interrelationship and quality communication, between various African communities around the world, was a common activity.

From the 1920s, through improved travel, railroad, postal services, merchant shipping, Black owned publishing house, newspapers, and magazine cultures. All played a role to accelerate the social acceptance of the ‘New Negro’ in the Global African Village.

Ideas of Negritude – Book Jacket.

Negritude – began as an exploration of racism, viewed as a concept of science and philosophy,

During the 1920s – 30s, young students and scholars from the French colonies, would get together in Paris.

Through the sisters Paulette and Jane Nordal, the assembly were introduced to writers from the Harlem Renaissance, including Claude McKay and Langston Hughes.

The cafe and salon ‘Clamart’ was the meeting place where Africans discussed the philosophy of Negritude, and the place where the concept of ‘La Revue du Monde Noir’ – ‘Review of the Black World’ was conceived.

The literary journal was published in English and French, through Dr. Leo Sajou in 1931. This publication also influenced the Spanish speaking Caribbean, where a similar magazine titled ‘Negris Mo’ started to be published soon after the journal in Paris.

Modern Black Identity

Black Writers International Conference – 1956 – Sorbonne – France – Paris.

In pursuit of the modern Black identity during the 1930s, relationships between the Harlem Renaissance, and the Black communities in France were cemented. It was an encounter of Black people from the continent of African, the Caribbean, and America, in the capital of a European State.

JOSEPHINE BAKER

Casino de Paris 1930.
Poster for Olympia Performance – Paris 1959.
Banana Costume 1927.

The Black Venus – Josephine Baker, an unknown stage performer in America, became a celebrated Dancer, Singer, and Actress in France from 1927. She headlined the revue of Folies Bergere in Paris, 1927.

Cafe Culture – Paris 1920s – 1930s.

After the Bloody First World War, French people were embracing new lifestyles. With a lust for joy and happiness, in an era titled ‘Les Annees Folles’ – the mad years of the Roaring Twenties.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Parisians were the first to recognise Jazz, as a new authentic art form. A craze began for the new wave in Music.

With its upbeat tempo, and the Jazz musicians ability to bring crowds on its feet – from foot tapping to Jive, Lindy Hop, and Charleston dancing. The music was a balm for the psyche.

Louis ‘Satchmo’ Armstrong – in a Paris Cafe, 1930s.
Duke Ellington – in Paris, France.
The Wedding – artist Wifredo Lam – 1947.

Originating from Black African and Caribbean students in 1930s Paris, France, Negritude began as a anti-colonial movement.

Negritude was transformed into a global art movement when it’s creative artists, scholars, and intellectuals, were dispersed from Paris, due to the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939.

The concepts and philosophy of Negritude are from a vast range of diverse sources, to critique the crimes against humanity by the colonisers, and imperial governments.

Philosophical and literary enquiries were at the heart of Negritude activities. The members of the movement were protesting against French colonial rulers, and their policies of integration, and assimilation. There were specific critiques and literary theories, in the African diaspora primarily aimed at cultivating, and raising the levels of ‘Black Consciousness.’

Negritude – Femme Noire – artist Ben Enwonwu.

The messages were all about, Black people immediate circumstances, living in a world dominated by white colonial racists.

Who viewed and presented African cultures, as barbaric, uncivilised, and backward.

Pioneers of the movement like sisters, Paulette and Jeanne Nordal, Aime Cesar, Claude McKay, Leopold Sedar Senghor, Abdulaye Sadj, Leon Dames, Astride Maugee. Were front runners among the original members of the historical movement.

Witnessing and experiencing the daily sufferings and humiliations of Black people. The major activities were to describe, show and tell truthfully, without prejudice and inhibitions. who and what Black people really are.

Above all the values of African dignity, integrity, the humanity of African people, and their traditions must be asserted. Annette DeCaine.